In a general computer system, login is the procedure or action used to gain access to an operating system, websites, applications, usually via a remote computer. Login requires users to create an account by authenticating and identifying themselves. Login information must include some essential login credentials, which generally consist of a username (a user ID, user email address, user nickname, or user telephone number) and a password.
Login Credentials - Username / Password
Username is used to identify someone on a computer or database system. One electronic device, such as a computer, mobile phone, etc. may be set up with different user accounts, along with different usernames for each account. A user account is a private space in which private information about the person, files, applications, and all the materials are saved.
A password, also referred to as a passcode, is a memorized secret, which consists of a string of words, characters, including symbols, digits, letters, etc. used to confirm the user’s identity. If the allowable characters are required to be only numeric, the corresponding secret password is also called a Personal Identification Number (PIN), which in most cases consists of four-digit numbers.
Sometimes, a username or user ID must conform to a limited length, in most cases - eight characters. Also, the password must contain at least a one-digit number. The username is visible and freely known when entered input devices such as keyboard or others. However, the password is not displayed as enrolled, and it must remain secret.
Examples of Login
Many websites and networking sites require a login to access particular information. If a user does not have a user account, he/she need to sign up and create a personal account.
For instance, Windows and Mac operating systems require a login to use the computer, even after it is woken from sleep mode or turned on again. Login is also necessary to modify system files and install the software.
Many websites such as Networking sites (e.g., Facebook, Instagram, YouTube, Gmail, Skype, Pinterest, etc.), Financial sites, Database sites, etc. require a username and password to access account information.
App stores like Apple's App Store and Google Play require a login to download mobile apps, games, music, and other files.
Administrator login is required by wired and wireless routers to modify the settings, setup password, code, etc.